IBADAN METROPOLITAN AREA AND THE CHALLENGES
TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Tomori M. A.
Phone No: +234-803-726-0502
The growth of Ibadan into Metropolitan City brings luxuries and opportunities, real or imagined which are not found in the rural areas. These attractions lead city to grow at a rate that become difficult to manage. Essentially, undue presence is exerted on the existing public utilities while services are extended legally and illegally to the unplanned new areas. So, it seems that the more utility services are provided, the more they are demanded. As a result, the utility services become inadequate and thus increasing the cost of doing business which in turn mitigate against all efforts to reduce the widening poverty gap.
This actually calls for effective administrative framework, good governance and urban manage capacity. There should be coordination among the various institutions which are responsible for the planning and management of the urban environment. Ibadan for a long time has no master plan leading to uncontrolled urban growth and haphazard and unsustainable development. Refuse collection, deforestation and flooding of the city has defied solution for almost a century now.
The solutions lies in the holistic mobilization of resources, demonstration of political will, socio economic interventions, regional planning and other essential elements of urban maintenance and growth must be marshaded in an integrated manner that allow the extended metropolis to operate as an integrated system and yet permit each community or neighbourhood to achieve its goal of corporate existence.
A broad and reliable information base is essential if cities, towns and metropolitan areas are to be managed effectively. Lack of information contributes to problems in urban development activities, badly planned investment projects, poor functioning of land markets, property tax administration and disregard for the environmental impact of development on the population. A good urban management information system should thus provide the basis for allocating resources to achieve the best overall objective developing metropolitan area.
Moreover, the property units in an urban area represent the basic economic assets from which the city can expect to generate much of the revenue needed to pay for the services and amenities provided by the city managers for the comfort of the inhabitants. Knowledge of the number of property units, the size, location, ownership, value, use and occupancy characteristics of these buildings or property units, this constitute an essential factor not only in the effective land management but also the efficient governance of the city and property assessment taxation.
The city is on autonomous phenomenon, the exploration of whose historical, cultural economic and political ramifications is not only intellectually exciting, but also contributes immensely to our understanding of the larger society. Just as there have been great empires in history, there have also been great cities past and present reflecting various flourishing civilizations.
Louis Wirth has rightly stated as far back as 1938, that;
“Different as the cities of earlier epochs may have been by virtue of their development in a pre-industrial and pre-capitalistic order from the great cities of today, they were, nevertheless cities”
That can be said of Ibadan which indeed is a city of earlier epoch that seems to have refused to change (Justin Labinjoh, 1991). Just as empires rose and fell in history some cities have developed tremendously while others have simply decayed. Ibadan is a curious mixture of the two experiences: it has not really developed economically and physically, but it has not decayed.
Ibadan city was, and still is, a place of conflict, an arena in which rival classes and emerging status groups struggled fro power, a place in which the major changes, structural, institutional and ideological, in the larger society produced fundamental reactions affecting the structure of social and political behaviour.
The character of a city’s economic activity determines the nature of it’s dominations. It soon become a centre of administration and (like all cities) a market. It was never dominated by a real bourgeois interested in production, rather it was dominated, first by an indigenous aristocracy who were mainly consumers, then by middlemen merchants and much later by a stratum whose common link was literacy (i.e. education but not necessary erudition) and whose concern was the modernization of the city. As a result, industrial capitalization never developed in Ibadan. The city of Ibadan has therefore remained under-developed till today, like the rest of the society.
2.0 THE EVOLUTION OF YORUBA CITIES:
In the Yoruba Golden Age which came to a close about 1800A.D. Yorubaland contained a number of kingdoms. The major kingdoms apart from Ife that developed in Yorubaland up to 1800 A.D. were Oyo, Ijebu Ijesa, Ketu, Popo, Egba, Sabe, Dassa, Egbado, Igbonuna, Ondo and sixteen Ekiti principal towns.
Prior to about 1550 A.D. the kingdoms were apparently inhabited by “homogeneous” ethic groups which had a paramount rulers Oba (king). Te seat of the
potentate was the capital city which was the relitious, political, administrative an economic centre of the kingdom of the ethic group.
The ruling dynasty of most, if not all of these kingdoms traced their origin to Ile-Ife and their descent directly or indirectly to Oduduwa. The account of the foundation of these kingdoms revealed that their founders left Ile-Ife at different times and for slightly different reasons rather than by common decision taken in normal circumstances according to tradition.
Therefore, cities established in those days were crucial to the development of the ancient urban empires in Yorubaland as they were Mesopotamia, India, Egypt, China, Central Andes and Mesoamerica. The urban empires became knowledge based societies where information and the conscious regular and systematic collection of data became an integrated part of maintaining controls.
Yoruba city concept in the Golden Age which came to an end in 1793 after the death of Alaafin Aole, was the royal capital established by the kings. As there was only one oba (king) in the kingdom, his seat was the only city in the kingdom. Only the seat of the king was designated city which is the largest. Other small settlement called.
The towns were the seat of Bales who by tradition did not wear beaded crowns. However, the civil wars of the 19th century had changed the concept with the emergence of other enlarged made up of refugees whose settlement have been destroyed such as Ibadan, Ede, Osogbo, Ikirun, Saki, Okeho and Ogbomosho while new towns emerged such as Abeokuta, Modakeke and Ilero.
2.1 Location of Ibadan Settlement
The present site of Ibadan was established by Lagelu after the destruction of the first settlement near Awotan in the neighbourhood of Apete in Ido Local Government area. The presence of hills makes the site of the city easily defensible while its location close to the boundary between forest and grassland makes it a melting point for people and products of the forests as well as those of the grassland areas. However, Ibadan was resettled about 1820 as a camp by the soldiers of the Ife, Ijebu and Oyo after they had successfully destroyed the neighbouring kingdom of Owu.
The city of Ibadan is located approximately on longitude 3051 East of the Greenwich Meridian and latitude 70231 North of the Equator at a distance some 145kilometres worth east of Lagos. Ibadan is directly connected to many towns in Nigeria, as its rural hinterland by a system of roads, railways and air routes. The physical setting of the city consists of ridges of hills that run approximately in northwest – southeast direction. The largest of these ridges lies in the central part of the city and contains such peaks as Mapo, Mokola and Aremo. These hills range in elevation from 160 to 275 metres above sea level and thus affords the visitor a panoramic view of the city.
3.1 Local Governance System
Although, the heterogeneous population of Ibadan was for sometime a source of constant struggle until the Oyo elements predominated, the heterogeneity also meant the existence of variety of people with new ways of doing things, novel ideas and greater capabilities to adopt innovations. This helped the Ibadan people to evolve a system of government whereby the conferment of title was based on a man’s wealth and achievement rather than on hereditary claims.
The Traditional Council (Igbimo-Ilu) was the supreme organ of state while in the exercise of power, the Baale now Olubadan was the chief Executive. Its membership was made up of High Chiefs from both Otun-Line (Civil Line) and Balogun (Military) line. In the early days, the crucial decisions on most deliberations were diplomacy, war, custom duties, appointments, promotions and discipline of chiefs, military strategy and security.
An integral aspect of the political system was the intense conflict for power. The leading elite were always engaged in power politics and the balance shifted from one person to another on the basis of wealth, influence and size of flowers.
The governance arrangement in Ibadan allowed the Chiefs together with the lineage head (Baale or Mogaji) to carry out civil administration. The lineage was important for every individual for it was through its membership that a person had access to land and exercised civil rights. Every lineage had a spokesman, the Baale or Mogaji who, together with the other elders, administered the compound in Ibadan township and village.
The paramount ruler called Bale for a long time was not crowned Oba and had no Central palace. It was in 1936 that the title was changed from Bale to Olubadan. The Bale during his reign lived in his family house and when he died the administration of the city also shifted base. However, in recent time, a permanent palace has been built at Oja’ba while another modern one is being proposed at Oke-Aremo on about 20Hectares of land acquired for the purpose.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the British took over the administration of Ibadan and they constituted the final authority and gradually, the indigenous political elites were integrated in to the system. They were responsible to the colonialists through the British indirect rule system. By 1952, a democratic system of local government was introduced in the Western and Eastern Regions. In 1961, Ibadan was constituted into seven local governments with Ibadan District Council created to oversee the affairs of these local governments. These were; Ibadan City Council for Ibadan City and six District Councils for the less city namely:
While the less city retained the structure of six local governments during the creation of local governments in 1989, Ibadan Municipal Government formerly Ibadan City Council was split into five autonomous local governments.
3.2 Organization and Administration of Local Government
There are eleven (11) Local Governments in Ibadan Metropolitan area consisting of five urban local governments in the city and six semi-urban local governments in the less city. Local governments at present are institutions created by the military governments but recognised by the 1999 constitution and they are the third tiers of government in Nigeria.
The fiscal federalism approach treats local government as a subordinate tier in multitiered system and outlines principles for defining the roles and responsibilities of orders of governments. Hence, in most federations as in Canada, the United States and Nigeria, local governments are extensions of state governments.
Local governments Councils consist of the Executive Arm mad up of the Executive Chairman, the vice chairman, the secretary and the supervisory councilors. The legislative arm coast of the councilors representing the 127 political wards each chairmaned by a leader and supported by other house officials while the Director of Personnel Management (DPM) serves as the clerk of the house.
There are six major departments in each local government which in turn are made up of divisions and sections. Various departments execute the policies and directives of the Executive. The senior staff members are employed and disciplined by the Local Government Service Commission (LGSC). The administrative departments are headed by a Director and include, Personnel Management; works, Housing and Survey; Finance and Supply; Educational and Health and environmental Services and Agriculture.
3.3 Revenue base of Local Government
The constitution of Nigeria determine function and revenue base for local governments in Nigeria while the state House of Assembly provides legal basis for collection of taxes, fees rates and charges constitutionally assigned to the local government. The revenue base common to all the 774 local governments in the country are: poll or community taxes, tenement rates, rents on property, licenses and fees income from investments or commercial undertakings, grants and transfers from state and federation Accounts and 10percent of the state government internally generated revenue (IGR).
Taxes on property (i.e. tenement rate) and licenses and fees form the backbone of the urban local governments revenue base. But local governments have shown preference for indirect taxes such as licenses, fees and levies over direct taxes such as property taxes, even when direct taxes are a suitable form of taxation because their incidence is localized.
Large cities and metropolitan areas are better able to levy taxes than smaller cities and rural local governments to the extent that urban local governments or metropolitan areas rely on property tax revenues. For example, more densely populated cities have a larger per capital tax base than smaller cities or rural areas, where property values are generally lower.
Moreover, since commercial and industrial properties are almost always taxed more than the residential properties, large cities withy a proportion of commercial and industrial properties have greater ability to levy property taxes.
Similarly, because of the higher level of economics activities, large cities and Metropolitan areas have greater ability to levy income and sales taxes and impose licenses and fees. Indeed, sales taxes are on way of capturing the benefits that commuters and visitors enjoy from using services in the municipal (see the table below)
The property tax is increasingly becoming important in Ibadan Metropolitan Area because the construction of economic and commercial property is fast increasing with a number of petrol filling stations, Commercial Banks, industries and shopping complexes dominating the property market thus increasing the number of high yielding taxable property. Hence, 75% of the State property tax revenue is generated from the eleven(11) local government areas of Ibadan.
Table 1(a): Collection of Efficiency of Property Rates in Oyo State
(1997 – June, 2006)
Sources: Oyo State Valuation Office and Local Government Inspectorate,
Ministry of Local Government and Chieftaincy Matters, Ibadan.
Table 1(b): Revenue Generating Capacity of Local Governments in Oyo State
Source: Ministry of Local Government, Oyo State Valuation Office
Studies of the reasons behind the observed decline in internal source of revenues, in table 6, especially, the local property rates, have shown that the problem is complex and that a number of factors interact. These are:
The discouraging trend in local government revenues has led to a number of recent initiatives to boost revenue mobilization and to mitigate the challenges.
4.0 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE METROPOLITAN AREA
4.1 Population Growth
The growth of the population of Ibadan has also been equally remarkable. From a war camp consisting in 1829 of a motley collection of soldiers, the population rose from the estimated 100,000 in 1851 to 175,000 in 1911. Between 1911 and 1921 it increased at about 3.1percent per annum to 238,075. The rate of increase between 1921 and 1931 was 0.5percent per annum while it was only 0.8percent per annum for the period between 1931 and 1952 when the population rose from 387,133 to 459,196. In 1952, the less city was counted and it was 286,252. From then on, the population of Ibadan metropolitan area increased at a growth rate of 3.95percent per annum from 1952 and 1963 when the population rose to 1,258,625. The population rose to 1,829.300 in 1999 at a growth rate of 1.65% from 1963 and increased to 1,338,659 in 2006 at a growth rate of 2.35%. However, the population growth is gradually shifting to the less city with a growth rate of 4.7% per annum between 1991 and 2006 according to the provisional census figure released by the National Population Commission (2006).
According to Professor Bola Ayeni (1994), “the population of Ibadan has continuously been on the increase and these low rates of growth are due to implementations and inaccuracies of census estimates”. (see table 1 and 2)
Table2: Population Growth of Ibadanland, (1851 – 2006)
Source: *1831 and 1890 figures were estimated by Missionaries
*Census figures 1952, 1963, 1991 and 2006
*Federal Office of Statistics.
*Ibadan Region edited by M. O. Filani (1994)
Table 3: Population Rate of Growth by Local Government Area
Source: National Population Commission, 1991 & 2006
4.2 Population Density
Table 4: Population Density of Ibadan Metropolitan Area (1991):
Source: Provisional Figure released by the National Population Commission (2007)
and Survey Department Ministry of Lands, Housing and Survey, Ibadan
From the above analysis, the population density of urban area increased by 9.47 percent while that of the rural area increased by 100percent within a period of 15years which shows that population is moving towards the less city as a result of rapid urbanization of the core area and industrialization of the periphery of the urban centre where land is no more available for industrial development. Moreover the dualization of Monatan – Olodo Road, Mokola/Ojoo Raod and Ibadan/Ife Express Road had opened by the Rural areas. (see the above table).
4.3 Housing Density
Table 5: Housing Density of Selected Neighbourhood in Ibadan Municipality
Source: *Oyo State Urban Project (IDF II), Ministry of Finance Budget and Planning, 1996. National Population commission, 1996.
From the table, Okeseni, Odinjo, Kobomoje and Elekuro are traditional area with low number of persons per building. The areas are predominantly bungalows with low quality construction materials and sanitation occupied by poor indigenes. Agodi and Iyaganku G.R.As have low density population as expected because of the single family structure with enough recreational areas or open spaces round their buildings. Agugu area and Foko are known slums neighbourhood in the municipality due to high population per building.
Apata, Ijokodo, Mokola, Benjamin/Eleyele are medium Density Areas dominated by blocks of 4 units of household buildings commanding high rents per flat. This is where majority of workers live in the metropolis because of high quality utilize enjoyed and fairly good road network and available public transportation.
Table 5 and 6 below were also produced form the National Population Commission census data in 1991 and 1996 for the five urban local governments within Ibadan Municipality to show the average Household size and Average persons per Building for each of the Local Government Area.
Table 6: Analysis of Building and Population of Ibadan Metropolis 1991
Source: National Population Commission, 1991.
5.0 URBANISATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN IBADAN METROPOLITAN AREA
5.1 Land-Use and Location of Economic Activities
The administrative and commercial importance of Ibadan has resulted in land being a key investment, an asset and a status symbol for the population. This has been evident in the frequency of and disputes in the city due to multiple ownership. Although land ownership is theoretically vested in the government through a land use decree, land is still very much private owned by families and lineages. Besides multiple ownership, land disputes also arise from non-compliance by people building houses in contravention to building codes and regulation.
The total land area of the eleven Local Governments of the Ibadan metropolitan area is 3.123km2 out of which about 15% falls in Urban Ibadan while the remaining 85% is in Rural Ibadan. Ibadan North Local Government has the largest land area among the urban Local Governments with 145.58km2 while Ibadan North West is the smallest with 31.38km2. The second largest local government in Urban Ibadan is Ibadan South West with 124,55km2 this represents about 4% of the total land of the City and about one quarter of Urban Ibadan.
For the rural Local Governments, Ido has the largest land area with 865.49km2 representing 27.71% of the total land of the City and 32.54% of the total rural land area. This is followed by Ona Ara Local Government with 277. 10km2 while Egbeda Local Government has the least land area of 136.83km2
The general land use pattern of the Ibadan metropolitan area shows a clear distinction purely residential use for Urban Ibadan and agricultural use for Rural Ibadan. According to Ayeni(1994) residential land use is the most predominant among all land uses in the built up part of Ibadan. In this analysis, the metropolitan areas refers to the urban only and some of the rural area.
The arrival of the railway bringing European goods and personnel for trade and administration marked the beginning of large-scale immigration. The railway system began in 1896 in Lagos and reached Kano in 1911 while the first motorable road in Nigeria was constructed from Ibadan to Oyo in 1906. Ethnic groups such as the Ibos, Edos, Urhobos, Nupe Igbiras, Hausas and Fulanis began to flood the city. Mokola became occupied mostly the Nupes and Igbiras. Sabo became occupied predominantly by the Hausas and Fulanis with an expensive cola-nut trade while using their heavy presence to influence, politics. Oke-Ado and Oke-Bola were then laid out for occupation by Yoruba ethnic groups such as Ijebus and the Egbas. These were ‘invaders’ of some sort but not the caliber expected to challenge business elite. They constituted mostly the under-class which provided supporting services in the society.
The growth of Ibadan became more rapid from 1946 when it was made the headquarters of the then Western Region of Nigeria. It then began to attract more Europeans as administrators and businessmen, Yorubas mostly as civil servants but also as traders, and other ethnic groups who came into various un-skilled occupations. The settlement pattern continued to follow the triangular form. Which had been established and Jericho with other New Reservations for Europeans were established because Agodi Hill had become inadequate. By 1952, the population of those Europeans had become 2,000. This is a large figure for those times. But larger and more rapid expansion were taking place in the indigenous areas such as Oke-Padi, Oniyanrin, Oke-Aremo, Oke-Offa, Ode-Aje, Agugu, Elekuro, Kudeti and Ogunpa area. According to Bola Ayeni, “The Metropolitan Area of Ibadan has one of the highest population densities in the country and the mostly densely settled areas remain the central and indigenous core of the city."
5.2 Housing Delivery System:
Residential land use is made up of a core area, inhabited largely by the indigenous Ibadan population. The core area is high density area where the process of compound disintegration called growth by fission by Mobogunje. The changing economic conditions is responsible for pulling down of old compounds and replaced by new modern houses.
The new residential districts contain low to medium quality residential areas where population densities are the order of four hundred (400) people per hectare – All these are post – 1952 developments by immigrants of Yoruba and non-Yoruba Oregun living around Sabo, Ekotedo, Oke-Ado and Mokola.
The third category of residential areas are the high class government reservation areas that have low population and housing densities of four to eight houses per hectare. These include Agodi GRA, Jericho GRA, Commercial and Link Reservations Iyaganku GRA, Alalubosa GRA and Bodija Estates.
Key players in housing delivery include the state government, local governments, Property Development Corporation, Universities and the Polytechnic, Federal Government and Private estates in form of site and services.
Table 8: Locations of Housing Estates in Ibadan Metropolitan Area
Source: Field Survey by the Author, 2001
5.3 Educational Facilities
The first step towards the establishment of Education in Ibadan was the founding of a school by Rev. Hinderer over 14 decades ago when he started a school under a shed at Kudeti in 1853. This great milestone was followed by the founding of St. James’ School Ogunpa in 1895. From 1845 more and more schools sprang up in various parts of Ibadan. Among parts of Ibadan. Among them are:
5.4 Industrial Development
The scattered nature of modern industries in Ibadan is due to the location of the industrial estates namely: Oluyole, Old Lagos Road, Olubadan Industrial Estate near Express Toll Gate, Olubadan Estate along New Ibadan/Ife express Road, Ajoda New Town and Eleiyele Light Industrial Estate. The Nigerian Breweries PLC has a modern brewery located next to Olubadan Estate with some industries located round the place (see table 16).
The traditional craft (e.g. blacksmith industry is organized on cottage or compound basis, so that industrial and residential spaces are practically in one and the same place while factory production, especially of the large scale types is generally in buildings or premises separate from dwelling houses e.g. Sanyo Nig. Ltd. Along Ibadan Lagos Express Road, Odo-Oba and Askar Paints Nig. Ltd. At Eleiyele.
What also constituted the periphery or fringe of Ibadan has been changing in line with urban development some industries are now located in those areas such as Gas Cylinders Ltd. Located at Ejioku, Leyland Nigeria Limited at Iyana – Church, the Nigeria Wire and Cable Ltd. Along Ibadan-Abeokuta Road Owode, the Standard Breweries at Alegongo Village, Eagle Flower Mills, Toll-Gate, The British-American Tobacco Company on Lagos-Ibadan Express Road new Toll-Gate Ibadan etc.
5.5 Market Development
Ibadan became the major commercial centre in the old western region. All leading traders and branches of European firms acquired plots in the township, In no time, the township became important city which enjoyed better municipal facilities and it accommodated the men of substance and poser in the hinterland. Dugbe and Gbagi Layouts were later released to Ibadan City Council which they now control and managed till today.
While Dugbe, Gbagi Railway Station, Adamasingba and Ekotedo areas represent the old Central Business Districts Commercial Centres had sprung up in other areas of the metropolis along Agbeni/Amunigun axis, Oje, Agodi Spare parts and Shopping Complex, Alesinloye (New Dugbe Market), Apata, Bodija, Oba Akinbiyi Market Complex, Agbowo, Ijokodo, gege and Adelabu Shopping Complex at Orita Challenge Ibadan.
5.6 Flood Prone Areas
As the metropolitan area of Ibadan continues to witness series of developmental activities, environmental risks arise from a wider array of sources which include air pollution from vehicles; household energy use; and industrial and power plants; land and water pollution from solid wastes and untreated sewage and traffic congestion, accidents and noise. These problems have more direct and immediate negative impacts on human health and safety, especially for the poor and on business productivity.
Another consequence of poorly managed urbanization is the settlement on unstable and risky locations such as along Ogunpa, Kudeti, Ogbere and Orogun floodplains and hillside of Oke-Are, Oke-Aremo, Sapati and Mokola hills in the centre of the city. This phenomenon is partly responsible for the Ogunpa flood disasters and soil erosion.
The urban poor live in crowded slums within the core residential areas of Ibadan. (such as Ayeye, Agbeni, Bere etc), with limited basic infrastructure services, and without land and personal security. Within the city core residential areas, there is lack of comprehensive water and sewage systems, inadequate garbage collection and disposition and unstable urban environments that increase vulnerability to natural disasters and jeopardize public health.
It has therefore become imperative to redevelop and modernize the decaying old core areas of the metropolis to make it more productive for business services. These indigenous areas need up-to-date communications infrastructure, more efficient. Office complexes and social services to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants.
The road network lacks packing spaces and good drainage system to the extent that vehicles are parked along the indiscriminately in the night and during daylight when transacting business’ especially around markets and business centres.
The incidence of poverty in the metropolis is manifested in the number of miscreants/area boys at various points like Bere, Oke-Dada Idiarere and other areas of the city, these include homeless children in the garage and those sleeping under the bridges. This however, is not prevalent in the rural area of Ibadan. These category of people and others do not have the opportunity to participate in society and in activities leading to improved health educational attainment, personal security, and other benefits.
Because of its ever-increasing population and inadequate drainage system, Ibadan had suffered a lot from the problem of refuse disposal. This has resulted in blocking of the few existing drainage consequent upon which Ibadan’s major river Kudeti and river Ogunpa and other smaller ones such as Ogbere stream, Orogun stream and Labelabe stream had to overflow their banks.
Historically, flood disaster is not a new phenomenon in the history of Ibadan from 1902 to 1980 there were seven cases of flooding recorded:
(i) 1902 – First flood-flooding of Oranyan swamp;
(ii) 1924 – Ogunpa overflowed its banks;
(iii) 1956 – Ogunpa flood which rendered many homeless
(iv) 1960 – Ogunpa flood disaster-destroyed 400 houses;
(v) 1963 – Ogunpa river overflowed its bank again causing disaster to many homes;
(vi) 1978 – Ogunpa river destroyed properties worth several millions Of Naira at Old Gbagi market, Ogunpa Oyo, Omitowoju and Molete (Tomori, 1979);
(vii) 1980- Another ogunpa flood disaster; the most devastating ever in the history of Ibadan. It killed about three hundred people and destroyed properties worth millions of Naira.
The most devastating of all was that of 31st August, 1980. Over 300 people died during the downpour which lasted for 12hours. Several people were swept way, others were trapped in debris while houses and personal belongings worth millions of Naira were destroyed.
The major causes of the 1980 devastation were the heavy rainfall and the expanse of water body caused by the bridges which suddenly became temporary dams. Secondly, the solid wastes that had completely blocked the spaces beneath them. Those bridges mostly affected were those along the Ogunpa Oyo, the bridge on Ogbere stream along
Iwo Raod and Onipepeye. Some buildings along Omitowoju banks of Ogunpa River collapsed killing all occupants. The flood came downstream to Molete with such massive force that swept away buildings, stationary vehicles and buses full of passengers such that dead bodies were found along Ibadan grammar School and the confluence of Kudeti and Ogunpa rivers around St. Luke’s bridge at Molete.
5.7 Recreational Facilities and Tourism
The need to recreate and its satisfaction are as old as mankind. Given the fact that man has limited capacity for work, the provision for leisure and recreation helps in the sustenance of life. Thus, as Candilis (1967) has rightly pointed out “it is not possible to isolate the problem of leisure from the concept of man’s life”.
In Nigeria, although, there are various potentials for the development of the recreation industry, this sector has remained neglected (Ikporukpo, 1993). The inadequacy of these recreational facilities in Ibadan has been aptly described by Obateru (1981, p.51) thus;
“Ideally, Ibadan should have at least 500 children playgrounds, but has none: 125 neighbourhood playgrounds but has only a miniature one: 125 neighbourhood parks but none. 31 district parks but none: of the 10 city parks it should have, it possesses only two: the city has two stadia although one expects the city to have at least 10.”
This is not to say that forest reserves in Ibadan did not have recreation component. The pond at “Agbadagbudu” (Edward Price Park was acquired by the city council and developed in memory of Edward Price, the Resident, Officer who ensured that Ibadan had an Independent Native authority in 1934 while the capital returned to Ibadan from Oyo. The title of Baale was also changed to Olubadan in 1936 while the capital returned to Ibadan from Oyo. The title of Baale was also changed to Olubadan in 1936 while he was the Resident Officer. The spring had been serving the core area of Ibadan especially Oke-Aremo, Odoye, Oke-Are, Beere and Mapo.
The popular “Alalubosa Lake” which used to be flourishing recreation centre during the Easter Holiday is no more. The site was acquired for redevelopment by the Federal Government but it is now sand filled as a result of deforestation and development of GRA plots.
There is an “Ogunpa Lake” (called Dandary by the Indigenes) at the upper course of Ogunpa River. The State Government (Ministry of Agriculture had established Agodi Gardens near the lake for recreational activities during the public holidays. It is located along the Parliament/Secretariat Road.
5.7.1 Bower Tower
The Bower’s Tower at the crest of the highest Oke-Aremo Hill forest reserve has been redeveloped by the Federal Government as Tourist Center of National importance. It requires the attention of the State Government to rehabilitate and tar the access road with good street light and adequate security. The tower, also known as Layipo, was built in memory of Captain Robert Lister Bower, the first British Resident to be posted to Ibadan from Lagos in 1893. He was also the traveling commissioner of the interior of Yorubaland. By 1897, bower had succeeded in laying the political foundation of colonial rule in Ibadan. The monumental project was executed by the then Ibadan Native Authority. It was unveiled on Tuesday 15 December, 1936 (see figure 20).
In terms of the distribution of modern recreational facilities according to the different geographical sectors of the city, the oldest unplanned indigenous South-Eastern part of the city mad up of such areas as Oke-Foko, Isale-Ijebu, Oke-Padi, Oke-Eleta and Oke-Mato is devoid of any form of organized recreational facilities. The crowded housing pattern here and the consequent inaccessibility of locations made the establishment of recreational facilities difficult.
Apart from Olubadan and Liberty Stadium, the planned older parts of South West, comparison of areas as Oke-Ado, Ago-Taylor, Odo-Ona and Iyaganku GRA, there are few Cinema Houses, Recreation Clubs, Playgrounds and two first class hotels (Kakanfo and D-Rovans).
The Central Business District of Ibadan has Lekan Salami Stadium Complex, Lekan Salami Amusement Park, Queen Cinema, Ibadan Recreation Xlub, Onireke Guest House and Polo ground at Eleiyele.
Most of the modern and higher order of recreational facilities are found in the new planned residential area of Bodija, Kongi, the University of Ibadan, Samonda areas, these facilities include the Zoological Garden, Trans-wonderland, Cinema house at Agbowo Shopping Complex, Playgrounds at both the Polytechnic and the University of Ibadan Campus, Agodi Zoological Garden, Premier Hotel, Kakanfo Inn at Jorce Barea, D-Rovans Hotels, K.S. Motel and D-Castle Inn along Queen Elizabeth Road. A sizable number of multipurpose Halls are springing up for social activities such as multi million Naira Jogor Centre at Liberty Road, Supreme Training Centre, Ibadan House, P. I. Hostels along Bodija-UI Road.
5.7.2 Monumental Mapo Hall
At the centre of the indigenous area of Ibadan is located the ancient Mapo hall and the modern central palace that could be another tourist centre. The historical Mapo Hall was built on the top of Mapo hill overlooking the vast area of the city enjoying uninterrupted breeze required for relaxation (see figure 21A)
Mapo hall was built as the main Administrative and Civil Centre, during the colonial days on a piece of land measuring 5,969 acres surrounded by road. It has an oval chamber specially designed for council meetings. The building is 48.9m long and 44m wide and 11.5m high while the capacity of the hill is about 700 people with a raised platform and gallery that could be converted to offices. About eleven (11) houses occupying the hall site were demolished on the order of Captain Ross, the Senior British resident in 1925 and compensation paid to the families affected.
The Hall was designed Taffy Jones, the Provincial engineer with the idea of putting up a structure which would reflect the history and culture of the people of Ibadan as “Omo-Opo-Mule-Ro”.
The foundation stone of Mapo was laid by Senior Resident Representative on July 14th 1925, ten days after the installation of Baale Oyewole (Foko). It was opened in October 5, 1929 by His Excellency, Sir Creame Thompson, the then governor and Commander-In-Chief of Nigeria. The building was completed at a cost of f24,000 (twenty four thousand pounds).
The political fortunes of Ibadan began to shift just two years after the opening of Mapo Hall, when Henry Lewis Ward Price became resident of Oyo province. He took up his promotion with the view that the power of Alaafin was too centralized. This was about the time the Ibadan Progressive Union was formed in 1930.
Apart from changes in the Native Administration Policy which led to the braking of the Oyo Province into Oyo Ibadan and Ife/Ijesha Divisions, Ward Price also encouraged projects which would emphasis a distinctive civic pride in Ibadan. Publication of the Ibadan Native Administration Chronicle was inaugurated in November, 1934. This Local Newspaper later known as “Ijoba Ibile Marun” included news of events taking place in the city and served to promote Ibadan as a dynamic economic and cultural center. In 1936 a special cupboard for the newspaper, along with Law Reports, Government Gazettes etc. was constructed in Mapo Hall, to enable easy reference for the public.
Mapo Hall has since been given a face-lift by Governor
Christopher Adebayo Alao-Akala led administration which was
commissioned in 2008 by the former President Olusegun Obasanjo
at Mapo Hall premises. The cost of rehabilitation was given as
6.0 WHY URBAN DEVELOPMENTS ARE NOT SUSTAINABLE
Generally, the model of development adopted at the local level has been the top-bottom approach. This model is predicated upon the assumption that the government (decision maker) knows the problems of the people in the areas to be developed and also that it has the wherewithal to do what needs to be done. Therefore, the beneficiaries are recipients who are expected to do little or nothing to bring development. Consequently, government tries to identify the needs of the people, do the planning and execute the programme. On the other hand, the beneficiaries are expected to receive the projects, use them, take care of them in order to elongate their life.
In may instance, markets were established outside the town/village settlements requiring some transport to use them. After the completion of the markets, the intended beneficiaries refused to use them. Even in the cities, market traders were forced by governments to occupy newly built markets like streets traders at Oritamerin were moved to Bodija Market, traders at Old Dugbe market to Alesinloye market and Trailer drivers at Ojoo – end of Lagos-Ibadan express Road to Akinyele Trailer Parks including the resettlement of Old Gbagi traders at the multi-million Bola Ige International market after the 1980 Ogunpa Flood Disaster.
For development projects established in a local area to be sustainable, they must be considered by the beneficiaries as their own. They must not be regarded as alien or external community. “Sustainable development, in this case, means development,
that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.” Therefore, the beneficiaries/users, of the projects must be involved right from the initial stage of the projects, that is from project conception, identification, planning to implementation.
Local governments are however; typically lack many of the skills and expertise which are increasingly required for effective environmental management and urban development planning. For example, there are shortages of personnel and capabilities in economics, policy analysis, statistics, real estate management, financial management project appraisals, public relations and information. In many cases, the low salaries and poor career prospects of local governments make it difficult to attract or keep the appropriately qualified staff.
6.1 Hostile Environment for Industrial Growth
Industrial local incentives (both fiscal and non-fiscal) offered in the context of growth-pole strategies are often not enough to attract industries away from big to smaller cities. Business wishing to operate in both the cities and the rural areas face many constraints, including poor infrastructure, particularly road networks and electricity supply, inadequate physical security, corruption, weak enforcement of contracts and the high cost of finance. These factors have deterred foreign entrepreneurs from investing in Nigeria and induced many Nigerians to take their money and skills abroad.
Governments themselves are often unwilling to take a lead in decentralizing their activities to secondary towns outside the major urban areas. This becomes even more significant when it is recalled that in many Sub-Saharan countries the public sector accounts for the larger proportion of the total number of people employed in the formal sector.
Most large private-sector manufacturers are more interested in the distribution or marketing of their products in smaller towns rather than setting up manufacturing enterprises in such towns. Apart from decentralization of manufacturing industry to smaller towns, this preference of large firms also poses stiff competition to small-scale and informal industries based in the smaller towns, the goods of which cannot (in term of quality) compete with those market from large towns.
6.2 Inefficient Service Delivery System
Because of the poor state of infrastructure, individuals and communities in many cities and towns, including secondary cities, have had to adopt a range of survival strategies. Most of these strategies have been devised in the context of what Goran Hyden has termed the “economy of affection” (Hyden 1983). The more significant of these strategies have included the following:
(a) Because of the inability of urban local authorities to provide sufficient affordable housing, and because of the inappropriate infrastructure and building standards, the majority of urban low-income residents in sub-Saharan Africa have had to provide their own housing within unplanned or squatter settlements.
(b) As a result of both the increasing inaccessibility and unreliability of existing piped-water-supply and waterborne-sewerage systems, communities and individuals in many urban areas have been forced to develop and fund their own infrastructure added as high as 15 times higher than that of piped water system.
6.3 Deficient Land Information Systems
The theory and application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Land Information System (LIS) should be integrated into the development and management of our cities. This will afford the managers and policy makers the opportunities to identify areas of priority in infrastructure needs. GIS is a veritable tool in the Management of infrastructure in urban areas and in efficient Land Administration. The commendable pioneering example of the Federal Capital Development Territory in this respect has been emulated by states such as Enugu, Abia and Lagos while the Federal Ministry of Environment, Housing and Urban Development has advanced with it’s comparable FELIS project.
6.4 Poverty and Inequality
Despite availability of natural resources, not all the Nigerian people enjoy the same chance of prosperity. Past governments in Nigeria since independence in 1960, instead of focusing on the delivery of essential public services, assumed control of major sources of national income. In the process, corruption is thrived in public service and gained a strong foothold in the society.
Consequently, there is lack of basic services such as clean water, education and health care. Poor people have no assets such as land, tools, credit and supportive networks of friends and family. Another dimension of the poverty is lack of income, including food, shelter, clothing and empowerment (political power, confidence, dignity)
Slum in cities is as a result of absence of basic facilities such as secured land tenure policy, educational facilities, water, electricity and income generating business activities. Overcrowding is common in the city centre where rent5 is low as a result of available poor housing facilities (no toilets, no piped water, and poor ventilation etc.) The occupation of hillsides and flood planes is as a result of poverty level in the urban are with damaging consequences. Absence of refuse dumps is responsible for heaps of refuse along the major roads and river channels.
7.0 STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
During the 1970s and 1980s and even in recent time, the World Bank’s urban development projects in different parts of the world and Nigeria in particular, shows that living conditions for urban residents, including the poor, could be improved significantly and cost-effectively. While all these efforts brought benefits, however, they have suffered a failure to recognize that sustainable urban development requires an approach that is even more integrated across the physical environment, infrastructure networks, finance, institutions and social activities.
If local governments are to promote the welfare of their residents and contribute to the national development, they must be sustainable and functional in the following sectors:
7.1 Adoption of Strategic Planning Approach
The local government’s commitment to improving the living condition of the citizenry should be aimed at ensuring a healthy and dignified living standard for the poor that permits them to share the resources of the society. This goal requires participatory, gender-sensitive planning for meeting priority needs of the local communities.
The Local Agenda (LGD) called “Strategic Action” describes the city development strategy for improving the living condition of the citizenry as a document containing the plan for reducing urban and rural poverty, Agenda inequality, creating a healthy urban environment, enhancing personal security (i.e. minimizing the risk of crime, violence, traffic accidents, and natural disasters) and making cultural and recreational amenities available to all.
Without some form of strategic planning vision and mechanism, it is extremely difficult for local governments to deal with their grassroots development and environmental problems, many of which are structural and long-term in nature. Equally, it is difficult to efficiently utilize capital investments (especially in the public sector) unless there is an over-all strategic framework into which they can be organized.
In pursuance of this local government Agenda, Egbeda local government should direct its efforts towards delivery of services critical to the poor by providing : micro-credits; access to affordable housing, basic infrastructure (such as health care, good road network, drinkable water and rural electricity), public transport; community centres; and programme for youths street children and the homeless.
7.2 Sustainable Local Government Financial Base
The local budget process is the core of the system of fiscal administration because that is where the broad financial policies and programmes of the local government are developed and the size of government is established, with other functions contribution to its operation.
The budget process is a recurring cycle in which:
Local governments therefore must observe the fundamentals of sound local government finance which include rational intergovernmental assignment of functions as well as:
Changes in national economic systems and the unpredictable intergovernmental transfers are fundamentally altering the ways in which local governments investments and services are financed. Complicating these changes is a continuing lack of clarity and inadequacies about sources of local government finance, usually due to inadequate decentralization of financial powers and taxation authority.
7.3 Local Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS)
The continued growth of Ibadan metropolitan and the surrounding serves as the national and regional growth centre of economic, technological and cultural creativity and human development. Transportation and communication systems permit individuals from the surrounding local government areas and rural communities to enjoy the benefits of the metropolitan areas without actually having to live in urban centre except by choice.
Although, many affluent sub-urban residents have abandoned urban areas, urban population continue to grow due largely to the influx of many poor, unskilled and uneducated individuals who still view cities as a base upon which to build their lives.
The series of urban development activities contribute to economic growth of the metropolitan area by allowing increasing returns to land, labour and capital. This savings, investments and wealth accumulation (through real estate, productive and infrastructure assets etc.) become concentrated in the urban areas of Ibadan.
Urban workers are more productive in large urban areas (the metropolis). Because there are more opportunities to match skills to jobs and to use additional capital inputs, however, bad management can impede labour mobility.
Therefore, it is important to stress that synergy between the rural and urban economics is a particularly important channel through which growing urban areas contribute to national and regional development. Urban and rural areas are interdependent markets linked by exchanges of people, goods, services, capital, social transactions and information technology that benefit residents in both locations. For example, ensuring the food security of urban population may require deliberate policy attention, since urban consumers depend more heavily on a marketed food surplus than do rural residents Policy.
Local Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS) will therefore, provide the opportunity for local governments, the private sector, not-for-profit sectors, the local community economy. The aim of this strategy is to enhance competitiveness and thus encourage sustainable growth that is inclusive.
Ideally, the development of LEEDS strategy should be integral part of the broader strategic planning process for the state and local governments. Sound Local Economic Development strategic planning ensures that priority issues are well targeted.
The economic empowerment of people is one of the foundations on which sustainable human development must be built. Together with political and social empowerment, it is the current and only means of not only alleviating poverty in the short run and eradicating it in the long-run.
Furthermore, the people have to be economically empowered in order to change their values, their attitudes to work and their savings and investment habits. Empowering the people economically will enhance their sense of human dignity and their perception of citizenship and self-reliance. Economic empowerment requires the satisfaction of three conditions, that is, access, availability and equality of opportunity.
The citizenry must have equal access to available productive resources such as land, capital and technology as well as consumable goods and services, to ensure accessibility to the resources, there is the need to provide income generating opportunities to the poor.
In order to achieve sustainable economic empowerment of the people, there must be establishment of community development institutions (CDI), especially, Indigenous NGOs and civil society institutions promoting self-help programmes. This will enable the use of direct community labour on a voluntary basis for the provision and fostering of greater mass participation in decision making, policy formulation, execution and monitoring of community projects.
7.4 Good Governance and Management
Improving the living condition of the residents of the local government in the urban or rural areas places big demands on good governance and management of the local government. Good governance implies inclusion and representation of all groups in urban society and entails accountability, integrity and transparency of local governments. Local Government institutions should be sensitive to the needs of the poor and disadvantaged residents of the local government area and to gender differences in service requirement.
Good governance entails broad participation of all groups in urban governance through both formal and informal channels and institutions. It is the sum of the many ways in which individuals and institutions, both public and private, participate in the planning and management of the common affairs of the city of local government area.
Therefore, local government should provide incentives by all groups in urban governance for effecting urban development. This means local government should develop a strong capacity to ensure the delivery of services through a variety of mechanism and there should be public access to information about local government decision making and actions.
Good Urban Governance is not just about providing a range of local services but also about preserving the life and liberty of residents, creating space for democratic participation and civic dialogue, supporting market-led and environmentally sustainable local development and facilitating outcomes that enrich the quality of life of residents
A framework for good urban governance must embody three principles of good governance. It must be responsive, responsible and accountable.
(a) Responsive Governance
This principle expects the government to do right things, that is, to deliver services, consistent with citizen preference;
(b) Responsible Governance
The government should also do it right, that is manage its fiscal resources prudently. It should earn the trust of residents by working better and costing less and by managing fiscal and social risks for the community. Egbeda Local Government should strive to improve the
quality and quantity of and access to public services. To do so, it needs to be benchmarking its performing with the best performing local governments.
(c) Accountable Governance
A local government should be accountable to its electorate. It should adhere to appropriate safeguards to ensure that it serves the public interest with integrity. Legal and institutional reforms may be needed to enable local governments to deal with accountability between elections, reforms such as a citizen’s charter and a provision for recall of public officers. I am aware of the proposed procurement and Fiscal Responsibility Bill before the Oyo State House of Assembly. This is a very good initiative from the State Government
Lack of accountability is linked to the problems of transparency in which there is a large degree of participation of identified stakeholders. Transparency and accountability can be fostered through regularly organized open consultations of citizens on financial matters and other important issues and through creating public feedback mechanism such as City Consultative forum, village or Town Hall Forum, hotlines, establishing complaint offices, Radio programmes etc.
At the level of the officials, both elected and appointed, there is need to promote an ethic of public service, establish codes of conduct and provide for regular disclosure of assets. All this will, of course, be facilitated where administrative and procedural incentives for corruption have been removed, local taxation system simplified and administrative discretion in the processing of permits and licenses is reduced.
7.5 Public – Private Partnership
The decline in local government service delivery is evidenced by inadequate resource allocation, low revenue collection, low service coverage, mismanagement, corruption and lack of transparency and accountability. The option to address these problems is for the local government to form partnership with the private sectors.
The public-private partnership (PPP) in public service delivery cannot be overemphasized. It is an arrangement whereby, the private sector harnesses its financial and managerial resources to provide social amenities and infrastructure on behalf of the local government.
Public – Private Partnership can take many forms such as:
(a) The private contractor or service provider operates the facility for a fee while the local government retains responsibility for capital costs;
(b) The private sector leases or purchases the facility from the local government, operates the facility and charges user fees;
(c) The private sector builds or develops a new facility, or enlarges or renovates an existing facility (e.g. Market, Shopping Complex, Fishpond or Housing Units) and then operates for a number of years.
(d) The private sector under (B.O.T.) agreement build the needed infrastructure, operates the facility for some specified period of time and then transfer to the local government,
(e) The private sector runder (B.O) contract build and operate the facility and is responsible for capital financing while local government regulates and controls the operation.
(f) The private sector builds the infrastructure and then transfers ownership to the public sector. Public – Private Partnerships provide some advantages. In addition to providing a source of capital, they enable the public sector to draw on private sector expertise. Private sector involvement tends to lead to more innovative and efficient operations than if public sector provides the services on its own.
7.6 Access to Affordable Housing
Access to cheap land for various uses is very vital to the local economic Development and the local government can only empower the citizenry by providing land for housing, shops motor parts, recreation to promote local enterprises. It is the responsibility of the government at the state and local level to provide serviced plots, office/shopping complexes and housing estates to meet the increasing demand, reduced hith rent and strengthen security of tenure. For example, the existing stock of government schemes at Agodi, Alalubosa, Mokola Layouts, Ring Road Layout, Lagos-Bye Pass Layout and the recent Sabo high class Housing Estate are not enough for a population of over three (3) million living within Ibadan Metropolitan area.
7.7 Public Squares and Green Areas in the Neighbourhood
We need to have places where people can be together: where we can linger if we feel so inclined; where we can enjoy the day or night and partake of the feeling of the community. This promotes communal bonding among city residents and infuses the social content into city life. This has been achieved in Abuja in the development of green areas, neighbourhood parks, recreational posts and relaxation spots complemented by catteries and bars. Evidently, this has stemmed the Exodus of residents from Abuja at weekends and extended social and business activities beyond the conventional “9 to 5.”
Trees and gardens save energy and money, gives pleasure to people as well as living space to animals and birds. Tress ameliorates temperature extremes. They provide much needed shade in hot, sunny weather and their transpiration helps balance local temperature. This idea has long been advocated by F. L. Wright in his Broad Acre city concept.
7.8 Provision of Farms within City Limit
The farther food is grown from town, the more it costs to transport into the city and normally the worse it is in terms of freshness and taste. Local farming means less promotes commercial organic farming, reduces stress on the earth and minimizes dependence on petroleum and petroleum products. Fuel and road use, which is good for earth and reduces need for taxes to s road infrastructure and fuel subsidies. Shorter transport time means food can ripen longer naturally, so it tastes better and is more nutritious. The necessity to fit farms into numerous smaller spaces in town means fewer, big agribusiness operations thriving on economics of scale. Instead you have a greater number of small producers resulting in a greater variety of food, more accommodation for local tastes and more competition (resulting in better products, services and lower prices, ceteris paribus). This practice
Cities should be developed such that they are interconnected through networks of culture, economics, trade or history. For instance, London and Tokyo are economically linked via the stock marker. Connection means linking cities with cities, but also linking a city to its surroundings. Most cities are not self-sufficient and rely on produce from their surroundings. They need trade links and other connections for economic viability. Looking at network it becomes possible to explain whether a city is developing or not. People are attracted to a particular city because of access to certain networks. The Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIEVS) moved its National Security to Abuja partly because of the enhanced access to government and other organizations plus anticipated networking which Lagos (the formal location has lost). So it is with other business.
Banks and other financial institution are attracted to big cities such as Lagos, Kano, Port Harcourt because of the network of activities there Networking creates business and social links and increases the creation of new possibilities within cities.
The future of Nigerian cities depends on the management of the economy and politics. Poor management promotes deterioration of urban living conditions. Urban poverty results because the Federal, States and Local Governments do not plan adequately for population increases and fail to provide the required infrastructure, services and jobs. Consider the excruciation traffic congestion along the Victoria Island Lekki Peninsula corridor owing to poor roads and allied infrastructure whereas the governments had every indication of the impending explosion in development along that axis which is easily the faster-growing belt in Africa.